A society’s attitude towards disposing and treating organic waste clearly varies around the world, which can vary depending on attitude and cultural differences. Solid waste management is considered to be one of the most serious environmental issues confronting urban areas in developing countries (D. G. J. Premakumara, M. Abe & T. Maeda, Reducing municipal waste through promoting integrated sustainable waste management (ISWM) practices in Surabaya city, Indonesia). Being the second largest city in Indonesia with a population of three million, Surabaya has been progressing over the years regarding their waste system, reducing its municipal waste generation by more than 20% over the last few years. Surabaya focused on promoting compositing of organic waste, which has the average daily amount of 1,500 tonnes before 2005, which then decreased to 1,300 tonnes in 2007, then even lower in 2008 at 1,150 tonnes. They introduced separation and reduction activities within individual practices, such as household habitual changes, community based collections, etc. By establishing Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM), Surabaya shows just how possible it is to reduce a large quantity of waste in a short time, as well as having a limited budget to start.
Many cities, including Surabaya, integrated the basic management system, which is the 3R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle), as a main stand point to encourage waste reduction, however, it has not been completely effective.With mixed results and relatively few efforts have been made to regulate organic materials that usually comprise over 50% of the total waste generation in the cities (D. G. J. Premakumara, M. Abe & T. Maeda, Reducing municipal waste through promoting integrated sustainable waste management (ISWM) practices in Surabaya city, Indonesia). Evidently, the practice of 3R has become the basis of sustainability in urban waste management – According to Smith and Scott, the waste management hierarchy is a protocol to maximise the recovery options and to minimise disposal through open dumping, limiting negative impact on the environment and natural resources as much as possible is the basis for achieving sustainable waste management. The levels of management system also varies depending on its habitat scale, and how its being implied as well. An example shown in Figure1 shows a clear table of a variety of scales, which were divided into household level, neighbourhood level, as well as city level. It explains the collection of disposals, as well as its recovery system post collection.
The city of Surabaya focuses on integrating existing recycling systems, as opposed to establishing new recycling ways so that they develop the lives of the society and being quite cost efficient as well (Waste Reduction Model of Surabaya City – 1). This statement was very intriguing as it shows how creating is not always the end solution to things, rather improving the system in itself and focusing on strengthening the society’s understanding regarding the disposal system. Unifying their passion of reducing waste, the city of Surabaya focused on promoting environmental impacts and composting practices in schools, households, and work sites, which evidently became very effective as these locations are practices that needs to be targeted to develop a change in waste reduction.
Within this figure (Figure2) above, this map shows the three main stakeholders of the city of Surabaya, which were the providers (who offers services), the users, and other possible external agents. Users and waste generations were the focused stakeholders in the waste reduction process as they play a huge role in contributing in actions and habitual changes to better the waste management system in Surabaya.