POST D: ALTERNATIVE ORGANIC WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

With waste management highlighted as one of the major environment problems, local authorities have embarked on an intensive process of evaluating and identifying the most effective techniques and technologies available to curb the menace. Arguably, a drastic increase in volumes of waste and lack waste management awareness can be blamed for financial, and resource constraint witnessed in the overall waste management. The common problems for the local authorities are to identify and select an appropriate technology in waste management. Far from the conventional composting, landfilling and incineration, the authorities in collaboration with waste disposal organisations can fully implement the Anaerobic Digestion (AD), integrated bio-digester, Mechanical-Biological Treatment for unsorted organic waste and Biofuel Gasification as alternative systems in organic waste management.

Anaerobic Digestion has been in operation for a while but on a small scale by institutions such as SUEZ and Darling Ingredients. The proposed plan would entail large-scale disposal process that would see massive digestion tanks constructed where the large scale anaerobic fermentation will be taking place (Visvanathan, 2011). The methane collected from the process would be used to produce electricity that would be added to the national grid. Shea et al. (2011) argue that the central institution could set up digestion facilities to be used in transforming the organic waste into energy and organic fertiliser.

According to Korres, O’Kiely, Benzie and West (2013), Pyrolysis is another technique that could greatly help in disposing off organic waste from the city. Under this process, decomposition of the organic materials is quickened under intense heating in the absence of oxygen to produce hydrocarbon gasses. Further, these hydrocarbon gasses are heated to produce liquid fuel which can be used for industrial purposes. The solid byproducts of Pyrolysis process could then be sent back for recycling or to the landfills.

Mechanical-Biological Treatment is another approach that is widely recommended for unsorted waste disposal. The approach is invaluable in dealing with oversize waste items before subjecting them to the normal composting. The process involves manual sorting of the oversize organic materials before homogenising them into small elements (Organic Waste Program Planning & Logistics- Organic Waste Solutions, 2016). These materials are subjected to biological degradation by providing the favorable condition for their fast decomposition. The end products are high-end organic fertilisers that are sold to the farmers while the remaining small portions of waste are sent to the landfills (Mohan et al., 2006). Therefore, Mechanical-Biological Treatment in a way, would help in reducing the amount of waste sent to the landfills while developing a cheap source of organic fertiliser and mulch for farming (Korres, O’Kiely, Benzie and West, 2013). However, this approach needs an insightful examination to prevent the use of contaminated organic fertiliser that could eventually end up in food.

Biofuel gasification and production is another method utilisable as an alternative waste disposal system. It is an approach entailing biomass gasification to produce a gas similar to the LPG specifically as a transport fuel. During the process, the biomass being fed to a reactor and subjected to thermal chemical decomposition. The decomposition process yields a high-quality biome-thane which is combinable with the natural gas or used solely as fuel. This approach in highly recommended given the alarming rate at which the fossil fuels are destroying our environment or even at worse running out. For a sustainable and efficient waste management solution, the city should resort to this approach not only for cheap fossil-free fuel but also for environment protection.

 

 

 

 

Reference list

Global Reach Internet Productions, I. 2016, Fast Pyrolysis Process – Avello Bioenergy, Avellobioenergy.com. Viewed 8 June 2016, <http://www.avellobioenergy.com/en/technology/fast_pyrolysis/&gt;.

Korres, N., O’Kiely, P., Benzie, J. and West, J. 2013, Bioenergy production by anaerobic digestion : using agricultural biomass and organic wastes,.

Mohan, D., Pittman, C.U. and Steele, P.H., 2006, Pyrolysis of wood/biomass for bio-oil: a critical review. Energy & Fuels, 20(3), pp.848-889.

Shea T, Briggs J, Bharambe G, Clancy B, Gough D, 2011, Sydney Water’s New Biosolids Management Strategy Builds on strategic process modeling capacity. Proceedings of WEFTEC

Organic Waste Program Planning & Logistics- Organic Waste Solutions 2016, Organicwastesolutions.com. Viewed 8 June 2016, <http://organicwastesolutions.com/organic-waste-management-strategies.html&gt;.

Visvanathan, C. 2011, Decentralized approach to treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with energy recovery by using inclined dry anaerobic digestion, Knovel.

POST C: ORGANIC WASTE DISPOSAL LITERATURE REVIEW

aacee128735203-55cf885ebb6a0Organic waste being the greatest contributor of the pollution need proper management to subvert the pollution trend. Environment pollution and numerous human ailments can be attributed to poor waste disposal mechanism employed by the individual or various institutions (Lim and Lim, 2014). From land damaging, greenhouse gas emission to release the toxic liquids, organic waste leads to the destruction of the environment. The most common way of disposing of the organic waste is sending waste to landfill. Evidently, 30% of the waste sent to the landfill represents organic waste (Visvanathan, 2011). By managing the organic waste, we can reduce the amount sent to the overburdened landfills hence saving land space. Proper management of the organic waste come in handy in reducing greenhouse gas emission. Organic waste buried in the landfills breaks down releasing the methane gas, one the main greenhouse gasses produced to the environment. Also, the breakdown process releases toxic liquid such as leachate that leads to soil and water pollution (Arvanitoyannis, 2008).

Organic waste management helps in reducing the overall cost of farming and disposing of the waste. Composting the biological waste reduces the need for chemical fertilisers and pesticides as it offers the cheap alternative. Obviously, finished compost is a rich natural fertiliser invaluable in returning nutrient to the soils hence promoting plant growth. Proper waste management lowers the cost of disposal (Visvanathan, 2011). The disposal process involved the collection and transported which can be managed getting rid of the waste as individual household or to engage a localised waste disposal approach (Arvanitoyannis, 2008).

Arguably, SUEZ (formerly SITA) is the leading institutions in the collection and disposing of the organic waste not only in Sydney but also in the large Australia. Other players include Organic Recycling Group (ORG), Covanta Holding Corp, Darling Ingredients and SMT Waste Brokers. Probably, composting is the commonest and cheapest way of getting rid of the organic waste. Edwards et al. (1998) states that materials that are organic in nature such as food scraps, plant material, and paper products are recoverable through composting and decomposing. The resulting organic material could then be reused as manure or mulch for agricultural and landscaping purposes.

The landfill is another approach used to dispose of organic waste in Sydney. However, due to large volumes of waste and scarcity of the landfills, the city has resorted to incineration as a solution for solid organic waste. The combustion involves in the consumption of solid organic waste by converting them into heat, gas and steam, and ash. In Sydney incineration is carried out in large scale by industry by companies Darling Ingredients, Organic Recycling Group (ORG), and SUEZ (Lim and Lim, 2014).

The city could use pyrolysis, integrated bio-digester and Mechanical-Biological Treatment for unsorted organic waste and biofuel gasification in the decomposition of the organic materials. Notably, these approaches involve the use of thermal and chemicals in the decomposition of the organic waste to give more valuable products. The end products of this process include feedstock, charcoal and liquid fuel, manure and heat which can be used by humans.

 

 

 

Reference list

Arvanitoyannis, I. 2008, Waste management for the food industries, Academic Press, Amsterdam.

Edwards, C.A., Dominguez, J. and Neuhauser, E.F., 1998, Growth and reproduction of Perionyx excavations (Perr.)(Megascolecidae) as factors in organic waste management. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 27(2), pp.155-161.

Golueke, C.G., 1977. Biological reclamation of solid wastes.

InTech – Open Science Open Minds | InTechOpen 2016, Intechopen.com. Viewed 8 June 2016, <http://www.intechopen.com&gt;.

Lim, N., and Lim, N. 2014, 3 Companies Making It Big From Garbage – Australian Ethical – Super and Managed Funds, Australian Ethical – Super and Managed Funds. Viewed 8 June 2016, <https://www.australianethical.com.au/news/trash-treasure-3-companies-making-it-big-garbage/&gt;.

Visvanathan, C. 2011, Decentralized approach to treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with energy recovery by using inclined dry anaerobic digestion, Knovel.

 

 

POST D

POST B: DATA COLLECTION IN ORGANIC WASTE INVESTIGATION

The organic waste disposal program can be grouped into three broad stages which include understanding the biological waste sorting technique and practices; investigating people perception on organic waste disposal and waste management awareness programs.

Surveying, site visiting, and interviews are the primary methods of collecting incisive information concerning the waste management. Surveying could involve the thorough examination of records and features so as to devise succinct statistical inferences to plan the disposal process (Ackroyd and Hughes, 1981). This approach is indispensable in data collection, particularly when examining the organic waste techniques and people’s perception of waste disposal processes. The main benefit of surveying is that it has high representativeness; cost economical; convenient in data gathering; little or no observer subjectivity and yield precise results (Ray, 2014).

Site visiting is yet another invaluable method that can be used in data collection. The method involves visiting the garbage sites to obtain in-depth information essential in the educational aspects of the learning program. The approach could be applicable in all the three steps of organic waste disposal process. From organic waste technique to waste disposal awareness, site visiting is vital in verifying and confirming prior studies, interviews and other documentations. The approach is useful not only on validating prior studies but also accentuating theoretical knowledge (Conducting research, data collection and analysis, 2016).

Interviewing also comes in handy in the qualitative research such as fish waste disposal and management. The interview can be either face-to-face, through the telephone or the computer assisted. The face-to-face meeting comes in handy at all stages of data collection. It helps the researcher identify good rapport with the participants such as the garbage collecting organisation thereon heightening the chances of cooperation and fruitful interview. Furthermore, telephone interviews could be useful where the researcher has less time or limited resources to access the participants (Ray, 2014).

Regardless of the data collection method involved, the process takes time thus it is prudent that the researcher is conversant with the data collection methods to save time and resources. Theoretical conceptualisations of the organic waste management procedures and techniques is essential in generating an intuitive research idea (Site Visit Process Schedule, 2016). The design initiative I used on the organic waste, processing and consumption entails six key steps to be succeed. First, I identified issues and opportunities for collecting data. Then follows selecting the issue to research on and set the goals of the study. Third step is planning on an approach and methods of data collection. After that, I collected data which was subject to shrewd analysis and interpretation in the fifth step. Afterward I assessed and verified the data. The last step involved developing an effective action plan essential in achieving strategic goals highlighted through the data collection process.

 

 

Reference list

Ackroyd, S. and Hughes, J. 1981, Data collection in context, Longman, London.

Conducting research, data collection and analysis 2016, Endvawnow.org. viewed 9 June 2016, <http://www.endvawnow.org/en/articles/322-conducting-research-data-collection-and-analysis-.html&gt;.

Everything Maths and Science 2016, Everythingmaths.co.za. Viewed 9 June 2016, <http://www.everythingmaths.co.za/maths/grade-10-mathematical-literacy/12-data-handling/12-data-handling-04.cnxmlplus&gt;.

Ray, J. 2014, Research data management: practical strategies for information professionals, Purdue University Press, West Lafayette, Indiana.

Site Visit Process Schedule 2016, Ada.org. Viewed 9 June 2016, <http://www.ada.org/en/coda/site-visits/site-visit-process-and-schedule/&gt;.

 

 

POST C

POST A: ORHANIC WASTE FROM FISH

Fish production, processing and consumption are one of the major contributors of organic wastes. Fish is processed into fillets, chips, protein products, canned foods, and fish oils. A big proportion of fish products is meant for human consumption. As the demand for fish products continues increasing, the production of fish also increases, and so does the waste produced during processing and after. Some of these wastes from fish include fish bones, leftovers, and dried fish. The increased rate of fish waste generation has become of due concern following its environmental impact which involves bad odour. This article shall briefly describe the lifecycle of fish waste and how it is improvised to become useful

According to the Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO), about 50% of the caught fish is used for human consumption, and the rest of it is wasted (Fao, n.d.). Thus, significant amounts of waste products or the rest of the raw materials are discarded, thereby creating undesirable impacts on the environment. Often, fresh fish products among other aquatic products are highly perishable and require refrigerated storage to maintain their shelf life and prevent damage to them. If not well stored, these products end up either being disposed or recycled as waste products (Disposal of fish waste, 2016).

Most of us will think that fish waste is the fish bones left over after a meal. However, surprisingly, fish waste includes the organic waste such as the fecal material and from the fish farms and other fish rearing points. Often, these wastes contaminate the water that often find its way into the natural environment. As a result, waters from the surrounding will experience accelerated, and uncontrolled growth of algae, that could be deadly for some marine life and indirectly be a danger to human beings (Lê, 2011).

Despite its adverse environment effect, fish waste could be utilised in various ways to be of economic and environmental benefit. There exist three most common ways of this utilisation, and that include the manufacture of fish oil/meal, manufacture of fertiliser, and production of silage (Gálvez and Bergé, 2013). For long, fish waste has been refined using commination and heating to separate oil. The remaining solid material is then used as a fish meal, a common agricultural feed ingredient. However, even though these methods could be deemed traditional, other modern methods have been implemented successfully while others are being tested (Yahyaee, Ghobadian and Najafi, 2013). For instance, the production of biodiesel has been shown to be catalysed by fish bone products. Other uses include the manufacture of fine chemicals used in human health and nutrition, animal feed and health, and industrial enzymes. Thus, fish waste, if well utilised could be beneficial environmentally, economically, and physiologically (Korres, O’Kiely, Benzie and West, 2013).

While the world increasingly consumes more and more fish, so has the amount of fish waste continued increasing? As discussed in this blog, if not well disposed of, fish waste could impact the environment negatively. However, through the available methods of utilisation, fish waste could be turned into useful products. Fish waste has for long been processed into fish oils and meals. Additionally, modern methods have seen newer uses of the wastes such as biodiesel and chemical production.

 

 

Reference list

Disposal of fish waste 2016, Netregs.org.uk. viewed 9 June 2016, <http://www.netregs.org.uk/library_of_topics/waste/more_waste_materials_topics/disposal_of_fish_waste.aspx&gt;.

Fao n.d., Waste from processing aquatic animals and animal products – 3. Aquatic waste treatment and utilization. viewed 9 June 2016, <http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x9199e/X9199E04.htm&gt;.

Fish wastes – Fish oil products – Fish production 2009, Enerfish.eu. viewed 9 June 2016, <http://www.enerfish.eu/p-techno-techno_id-1/fish-wastes-to-fish-oil.html&gt;.

Gálvez, R. and Bergé, J. 2013, Utilization of fish wastes, CRC Press, London.

Korres, N., O’Kiely, P., Benzie, J. and West, J. 2013, Bioenergy production by anaerobic digestion : using agricultural biomass and organic wastes,.

Lê, M. 2011, Nutrition, Food Science, and Dietetics Faculty Have Information Needs Similar to Basic and Medical Sciences Faculty – Online Access to Electronic Journals, PubMed/Medline, and Google, Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, vol 6, no 4, p.155,.

Yahyaee, R., Ghobadian, B. and Najafi, G. 2013, Waste fish oil biodiesel as a source of renewable fuel in Iran, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol 17, pp.312-319,

 

 

POST B