Post D: Literature Review

The UTS Waste Management Plan (n.d.) was introduced as a required reading of the Wealth from Waste subject. This document is relevant as it outlined the history of waste management at UTS, the current progress and statistics of the amount of waste that is rescued or sent to landfill, the systems and facilities in place to sort and process waste on and off site, and the goals that UTS aimed to achieve into the future. This document, and other information about the UTS waste management system such as information by UTS Green (2017) and the Institute for Sustainable Futures (2017), was particularly useful to our group project as it provided information and guidance on our designs and helped frame our brief. It brought a non-governmental and small scale perspective to the organic waste problem.

The Highgrove Royal Gardens in Gloucestershire, United Kingdom, is a residence of the Prince of Wales which incorporates organic farming practices with sustainability concepts (The Prince of Wales, 2017). I was aware of Highgrove for many years through an introduction by my partner to a video on the gardens (The British Monarchy, 2011) as I had always had a keen interest in sustainability practices. The management practices of Highgrove show how the organic waste life cycle can be treated locally, within 15 acres, in a residential setting. I found it particularly interesting that they treat their own wastewater through a reed filtration system (The British Monarchy, 2011). In tandem with the gardens, Prince Charles has also established an International Sustainability Unit (2011) which has published articles addressing sustainable urbanisation (International Sustainability Unit, 2015) and research on the sustainability and resilience of food systems on a global level (International Sustainability Unit, 2011).

Technical Document on Municipal Organics Waste Processing

The “Technical Document on Municipal Organics Waste Processing” (Environment Canada, 2013) was a very valuable document in helping me understand the was organic was could be processed on a large scale and relates directly with the issues discussed in class in regards to how multiple systems and stakeholders may be able to work together to achieve a complete and efficient system. This document was found while I was searching for information about caddy liner design and organic waste statistics.

Screen Shot 2017-05-11 at 5.38.51 PM
Temperature variations and microbial populations during the composting process (Environment Canada, 2013, pp. 31)

It was highly relevant to our subject as it describes, in depth, statistics of amounts of organic waste produced and processed in municipal areas in Canada, the challenges and benefits to recycling organic waste, the processes local councils may use to treat organic waste, the scientific and biological process of breaking down organics, the available technologies that can be harnessed for organic waste recycling, how the resulting by-products are used and the structure of the compost market system. It is an end to end understanding of the organic waste process which mentioned how bin caddies can be used in the household (Environment Canada, 2013, pp. 31) to which system combination could councils implement (Environment Canada, 2013, pp. 193). The information provided is educational and serves as a guide weighing the pros and cons of each method that is mentioned in the document to help local councils make decisions about their own waste management systems. The way the document was formed showed at least an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the full waste stream as it combined many industries and skill sets. Environment Canada also presented the information in a comprehensive yet concise manner which seemed ideal for making informed bureaucratic decisions.

References

The British Monarchy, 2011, “Highgroves: Discover its sustainable secrets”, Youtube video, England, viewed 10th June 2017, <https://youtu.be/OAbeYk_vSaI >

Environment Canada, 2013, “Technical Document on Municipal Solid Waste Organics Process”, Canada, viewed 17th April 2017, <http://www.compost.org/English/PDF/Technical_Document_MSW_Organics_Processing_2013.pdf >

International Sustainability Unit, 2011, “What Price Resilience? Towards sustainable and secure food systems“, UK, viewed 10th June 2017, <http://pcfisu.org/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/TPC0632_Resilience_report_WEB11_07_SMALLER.pdf >

International Sustainability Unit, 2015, “Food in an urbanised world“, UK, viewed 10th June 2017, <http://www.pcfisu.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/CRFS-7-April-10-.zip >

Prince of Wales, 2017, “The Royal Gardens“, Clarence House, England, viewed 10th June 2017, <https://www.princeofwales.gov.uk/features/the-royal-gardens >

UTS, n.d., “UTS Waste Management Plan“, UTS, Sydney, viewed 18th March 2017, <https://www.uts.edu.au/sites/default/files/WASTE_MANAGEMENT_PLAN.140301.pdf >

UTS Green, 2017, “Waste and recycling | University of Technology Sydney“, UTS, Sydney, viewed 17th April 2017, <https://www.uts.edu.au/partners-and-community/initiatives/uts-green/campus-operations/waste-and-recycling >

UTS Institute of Sustainable Futures, 2017, “Food scraps to soil conditioner: Processing food waste onsite at UTS | University of Technology Sydney“, UTS, Sydney, viewed 17th April 2017, <https://www.uts.edu.au/research-and-teaching/our-research/institute-sustainable-futures/our-research/food-futures/food >

Post C: Project

We the group, Level Three, proposed to a panel of organic food waste specialist on Wednesday 7th June 2017 to make organic food waste transparent at University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) by looking at practices, education and promotion. We began our process by writing our own brief and deciding on the confines we wanted to stay within in the sense of our target market, geographic location, stakeholder and a point in the direction of what we wanted to design. This was all developed from a literature review, blackboard audit, survey, data collection and observations.

Brief

As a group you will have the opportunity to design and create a communication tool for students of The University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) and related demographics including staff and businesses in and around the UTS Campus. This communication tool needs to cater to practices, education and promotion by showing transparency surrounding the issues of food waste at UTS.

Research needs to be undertaken to inform and raise awareness regarding the current food waste situation at UTS. Using the UTS Sustainable Development Goals as an initial starting point will assist beginning your process for showing transparency surrounding the issues of food waste at UTS. Primary and secondary methods such as data collection, mind maps, surveys, observation, user testing and literature review need to be undertaken carefully with precision to provide accurate data.

Your presentation of your UTS food waste communication tool is due Wednesday 7th June 2017. You will need to have the food waste tool finalised by Friday 2nd June 2017.

You are to approach the food waste problem at UTS in four separate areas:

  • Food Waste Management
  • Food Waste Communication
  • Food Waste Education
  • Food Waste Systems

The communication tool needs to be presented neatly and in a cohesive manner. Remember you’re designing mainly for students but also for UTS staff and businesses around the UTS campus.

Above is our brief. Initially we struggled to place the right confines on our brief from attempting to come up with the final design solution before going through the design process. The brief hits a couple of key points we decided to align ourselves and the goals we wanted to achieve to the UTS Sustainable Develop Goals. Another key point was sharing and communicating to the UTS community, mainly students about the benefits of organic food waste and what can do to make it transparent.

Survey Analysis

We conducted a survey on organic food waste at UTS aimed at students to see what they knew about the system and whether they wanted to know more. The questions we asked on Survey Monkey, an Internet survey platform made it easier and faster to collect the data.

The results from the survey, identified students don’t know much about the organic food waste system at UTS referring to the 26 out of 39 people in question one. However 37 out of 39 people said they would change their behaviour referring to question four, if they were provided facts and figures. The other insight made was 27 out of 39 people were willing to be part of a broader scheme of organic food waste even with a chance their efforts could be wasted.

Literature Review

We’ve conducted a literature review to further ground our research regarding the current standings of food waste. Looking at this matter from a bigger picture, we’ve divided our research into three sub topics regarding our main focus on food waste (transparency); transparency in everyday practices, education, and promotion. Transparency in everyday practices focuses on the habits and behaviours of humans that shapes the current state of food waste our society is at now. We focused on diving in deeper on how big of an impact of humans can make regarding food waste, and how important it is to know beyond the existing rules of waste distribution, rather concrete their understandings on the current state of food waste. Transparency in education focuses on the precise definition of food waste by being transparent about food waste, as a lack of understanding can result to ignorance. Transparency in promotion is a big part of food waste – our take on this topic was to be completely transparent about the numbers and statistics of the state of food waste right now, as well as goals for the future. This way, we were hoping to stimulate interest from society to take part in improving this matter.

This literature review helped us develop a concrete definition of transparency and food waste itself to move forward with our design ideas. We understand that education was a key point of this topic – as a result, we chose to focus on integrating an educational advertisement through promoting the importance of transparency regarding food waste, and how big of an impact humans can contribute to make a change.

Designs

The first design we created was poster based. We believe posters are always a necessary element to any advertising campaign due to their ability to intrigue passerby’s, contain all relevant details and maintain a prominence across the campus. Containing a different type of food on each, the vector is depicted at a low transparency to reinforce our transparent theme.

The second design constructed was a design that we decided on when walking the sidewalks of the university. “Food Prints” were formed as a concept that can be applied to the ground of all walking spaces on campus. Naturally looking down when walking, students, staff and visitors can walk on our food prints and at a glance, be reminded of the message we are attempting to convey to to UTS as a whole.

20170619_00525120170619_00522120170619_005139

Conclusion

Our transparency communication tool has been developed from the results of the literature review, black board audit, organic food waste data collection, online survey and visual analysis. This has given us the evidence to design an appropriate answer to organic food waste not going to landfill but back into our gardens by means of compost from the machines in building 8 and 10.

Bibliography

POST C

We the group, Level Three, proposed to a panel of organic food waste specialist on Wednesday 7th June 2017 to make organic food waste transparent at University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) by looking at practices, education and promotion. We began our process by writing our own brief and deciding on the confines we wanted to stay within in the sense of our target market, geographic location, stakeholder and a point in the direction of what we wanted to design. This was all developed from a literature review, blackboard audit, survey, data collection and observations.

Brief

As a group you will have the opportunity to design and create a communication tool for students of The University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) and related demographics including staff and businesses in and around the UTS Campus. This communication tool needs to cater to practices, education and promotion by showing transparency surrounding the issues of food waste at UTS.

Research needs to be undertaken to inform and raise awareness regarding the current food waste situation at UTS. Using the UTS Sustainable Development Goals as an initial starting point will assist beginning your process for showing transparency surrounding the issues of food waste at UTS. Primary and secondary methods such as data collection, mind maps, surveys, observation, user testing and literature review need to be undertaken carefully with precision to provide accurate data.

Your presentation of your UTS food waste communication tool is due Wednesday 7th June 2017. You will need to have the food waste tool finalised by Friday 2nd June 2017.

You are to approach the food waste problem at UTS in four separate areas:

  • Food Waste Management
  • Food Waste Communication
  • Food Waste Education
  • Food Waste Systems

The communication tool needs to be presented neatly and in a cohesive manner. Remember you’re designing mainly for students but also for UTS staff and businesses around the UTS campus.

Above is our brief. Initially we struggled to place the right confines on our brief from attempting to come up with the final design solution before going through the design process. The brief hits a couple of key points we decided to align ourselves and the goals we wanted to achieve to the UTS Sustainable Develop Goals. Another key point was sharing and communicating to the UTS community, mainly students about the benefits of organic food waste and what can do to make it transparent.

Survey Analysis

We conducted a survey on organic food waste at UTS aimed at students to see what they knew about the system and whether they wanted to know more. The questions we asked on Survey Monkey, an Internet survey platform made it easier and faster to collect the data.

The results from the survey, identified students don’t know much about the organic food waste system at UTS referring to the 26 out of 39 people in question one. However 37 out of 39 people said they would change their behaviour referring to question four, if they were provided facts and figures. The other insight made was 27 out of 39 people were willing to be part of a broader scheme of organic food waste even with a chance their efforts could be wasted.

Literature Review

We’ve conducted a literature review to further ground our research regarding the current standings of food waste. Looking at this matter from a bigger picture, we’ve divided our research into three sub topics regarding our main focus on food waste (transparency); transparency in everyday practices, education, and promotion. Transparency in everyday practices focuses on the habits and behaviours of humans that shapes the current state of food waste our society is at now. We focused on diving in deeper on how big of an impact of humans can make regarding food waste, and how important it is to know beyond the existing rules of waste distribution, rather concrete their understandings on the current state of food waste. Transparency in education focuses on the precise definition of food waste by being transparent about food waste, as a lack of understanding can result to ignorance. Transparency in promotion is a big part of food waste – our take on this topic was to be completely transparent about the numbers and statistics of the state of food waste right now, as well as goals for the future. This way, we were hoping to stimulate interest from society to take part in improving this matter.

This literature review helped us develop a concrete definition of transparency and food waste itself to move forward with our design ideas. We understand that education was a key point of this topic – as a result, we chose to focus on integrating an educational advertisement through promoting the importance of transparency regarding food waste, and how big of an impact humans can contribute to make a change.

Designs

The first design we created was poster based. We believe posters are always a necessary element to any advertising campaign due to their ability to intrigue passerby’s, contain all relevant details and maintain a prominence across the campus. Containing a different type of food on each, the vector is depicted at a low transparency to reinforce our transparent theme.

The second design constructed was a design that we decided on when walking the sidewalks of the university. “Food Prints” were formed as a concept that can be applied to the ground of all walking spaces on campus. Naturally looking down when walking, students, staff and visitors can walk on our food prints and at a glance, be reminded of the message we are attempting to convey to to UTS as a whole.

20170619_00525120170619_00522120170619_005139

Conclusion

Our transparency communication tool has been developed from the results of the literature review, black board audit, organic food waste data collection, online survey and visual analysis. This has given us the evidence to design an appropriate answer to organic food waste not going to landfill but back into our gardens by means of compost from the machines in building 8 and 10.

Bibliography

Post D: Research of existing Organic Waste Management Systems

download

According to the data from an Australian community called Foodwise, 20% of food will be discarded. 1036 dollars of food is wasted for the average Australian household, more than 8 billion dollars of food is wasted every year in Australia. This local organization has an educational website to explain some facts about organic waste existing in Australia. This website was

recycling_bin

founded during the audit assignment which is helpful for my whole subject. Foodwise has devoted to improve Australian people’s awareness of food to reduce organic. Foodwise is not only providing data information, but also educating people about recipes, meal plans, a self growth food campaign to stimulate people farm their own food. Another similar company called Closed Loop also provides waste management services to companies, reducing the waste, to reduce the cost. Organic waste is also what they looking at. Designing organic food packages ,managing resources and the classified bin to help companies such as KFC to reach their sustainable goal.

 

 

 

 

 

Food waste(eatable parts) is avoidable if people have the awareness. Foods are becoming cheaper so that shopping without thinking will appear more frequently. By doing the interview to students living in UTS housing, almost all the interviewees don’t really care about waste of food. Think about it: if even educated Uni students don’t care, who cares? In my opinion, most people have never received food related education, so the issue is reasonable. Food related education is significant, and it need to be appearing in people’s views frequently to improve public awareness.

Some organic wastes are unavoidable such as peels, bones, etc. the existing organic waste management deals with these waste in 2 ways, recycle and landfill. Landfill is the most common method to deal with organic waste because of the immature and high-cost of the recycling technology, and also, organic waste from households and other places are not classified, they always mixed with other un-recyclable general waste. Waste management company SUEZ located at Lucas heights deals with all kinds of waste. 微信图片_20170618212929SUEZ landfill hole

We have visited the landfill place during a class. They deal with organic waste as general waste which let them go to landfill. The huge landfill hole can contain general waste for years in the future. Organic waste doesn’t pollute the environment, so landfill can be the most efficient and cheap solution. But SUEZ also have a web page talking about dealing with organic waste in a particular way. SUEZ Organic Resource Recovery Facilities recycle the wastes to compost products such as sporting fields and garden beds for families and public places. But this facilities have limited to recycle several specific waste. The limitation has hindered its popularization. Closed Loop company has also helped UTS created the facilities to separate recycle organic waste to produce fertilizers. It requires all the waste resources are pure food/organic waste, and the product of this project can be used in soil and make a profit. In conclusion, recycling organic waste is the better way for sustainability, but it is still a experimental solution at this stage. Landfill is still playing a dominant role for dealing with organic waste.Untitled-1

 

References

Fast Facts on Food Waste, FOODWISE, viewed 16 June 2017, < http://www.foodwise.com.au/foodwaste/food-waste-fast-facts/&gt;.

Organic waste management, SUEZ, viewed 16 June 2017, < http://www.sita.com.au/commercial-solutions/resource-recovery-recycling/organic-material/&gt;

Products and services, CLOSED LOOP, viewed 16 June 2017, < http://www.closedloop.com.au/products-and-services&gt;.

POST A: 24 hour Organic Waste Audit

When conducting this audit it became quite clear that there was many areas of the waste process that were almost seamlessly invisible, potentially impacting how we approach our individual waste.

Screen Shot 2017-04-05 at 10.50.28 AM

Screen Shot 2017-04-05 at 10.49.59 AM

I live in an apartment complex on the fifth level. In our complex there is a bin room on the garage basement level with 20 red regular bins, 15 yellow recycling bins and just 2 green bins. Sorting waste into the three categories is definitely a choice not always taken. At home I try my best to have all three bins, however, sometimes other members of the house don’t always follow the three bins or create them themselves or sometimes I don’t if I am tired and become more lazier. Once bins are full there then becomes the act of transporting them down to the basement bin room and sorting them into the different coloured bins. Once again, it would be easy for anyone to just put all their waste into one bin without sorting. Each unit pays strata fees and with this there is a person hired with the job of taking all the bins out to the street the day before the council garbage collection and bringing them back in and washing them down. The audit highlighted how the sorting of waste takes effort for the individual. We as humans naturally aspire for ease and much of the waste process is made easier through not categorising and having other people take care of it almost invisibly for our individual and community comfort.


After the reaching the act of the weekly council garbage pickup I felt as if I was guessing what comes next as i’ve never seen it. I can only speculate that the garbage transported away to some sort of sorting process, hopefully finding ways to recycle, reuse or minimize the waste, and/or then to landfill somewhere far far away. This unknowing is unsettling. We constantly hear  that our society and world has big issues with waste processes and landfills rising, however, without the visibility of the issue and direct daily impact there is definitely the easy, comforting stance of ‘“if I can’t see it then it’s not there.” I would love to better understand the post garbage collection and see if somehow the visibility of the process would change my own behaviours.

 

Book Launch Audit

Screen Shot 2017-04-05 at 12.28.15 PM

During our second Wealth to Waste class we attended the book launch and 20th Anniversary for the Institute of Sustainable Futures and were asked to audit the event. Undertaking the audit highlighted how there is a lot of work and factors that goes into creating an event such as this. Food and drink would appear from staff members, refilling frequently, attentive to the guests. Behind the bar, glass and plastic bottles were recycling into bins and half eaten food was taken away and refilled to a nicer aesthetic. It is very easy to just see and consume in the luxuries of the celebrating, however, as we audited we noticed the staff entering from and exiting to a door right at the back of the room in a corner. One can only assume that behind this door there was a complete work mode in place with food storage, kitchens, event managers, cleaning going on creating the beauty and harmonious flow of the event.

 

References

Singer. L, 2015, video recording, TEDxTeen, viewed 2 April 2017, <https://www.tedxteen.com/talks/why-i-live-a-zero-waste-life-lauren-singer&gt;

University of Technology Sydney, 2013, Waste Management Plan 2013-2015, Sydney, Viewed 2 April 2017 <https://www.uts.edu.au/sites/default/files/WASTE_MANAGEMENT_PLAN.140301.pdf&gt;

Australian Government, Department of the Environment and Energy 2010, Understanding Your Waste Stream: Food and Organics Best Practice Collection Mannual, Department of the Environment and Energy, Canberra

 

 

Post A:Organic waste audit

Introduction

Dealing with waste is getting more serious for the modern society. It is about our planet and off-springs. Everyone produces waste especially during eating. $8-$10 billion of food is wasted in Australia every year. Eating might looks simple but there is a tremendous process to support the whole industry chain. I have recorded my one day organic food waste audit to briefly show what is my daily organic waste; how to deal with and finally to evaluate different criteria to solve different situations in the future.

Me and foodfood

I only buy what I need in 2 days, so I go shopping food quite frequent. I divide my food to 3 main kinds which are fruits and vegetables for vitamins, carbohydrates for energy and protein sources. Because I go to the gym 6 times a week, so I eat quite clean which means a low salt and sugar, almost no additional fat diet. I have been followed the very rigorous routine for 2 years(I have cheat days sometimes). I eat 4-5 meals a day which is a little bit different to other people.

IMG_20170403_230001my meals in 1 day

I barely waste cooked food, but some food in the fridge might be wasted. For example, I don’t like very sweet bananas. If there are black dots on a banana, I will throw them into the bin. Sometimes, some food just looks not good, but still eatable, they might also be wasted too. The scraps of food such as shells, peels and bones are the main organic waste in my daily life. They cannot be reusable. The best way to disposal them is to compost the scraps to reuse them. But I have no other option to deal with them, especially when I’m living in an apartment. Sorting the waste is better for disposal than mixing everything up.

Appendages

The waste of appendages during shopping and using is also a serious problem to solve. Every time during shopping, so many plastic bags will be wasted, small green bags for bulk food, big grey bags to carry items. Some of the plastic bags are recyclable, but most of them have to be land filed. The oven is my favorite kitchenware, but every time a piece of aluminum foil is needed. Although aluminum foil is recyclable, but it need to be cleaned. Used aluminum foil is unrecyclable. For me, the biggest part of organic waste is the appendants. They might be not ‘organic’, but they come with everyday’s consumption.4

too many apendages

Personal behaviors

Our personal behaviors are also important to drive the way of waste. Shopping without thinking is normal to all of us, which could cause unnecessary waste. Saving food is also saving money. During shopping, a carry bag can replace plastic bags, and also it works in cafes with own cups. Reducing use of oven could save one-off aluminum foils. Calculate daily calorie intake is another way to avoid organic waste. The average adult daily intake is around 2000 Calories, and it also depends on the age and body weight. After I get used to this, I can estimate how much food do I need for the next meal.

 Evaluation & Conclusion

According to the UTS waste manage plan-the waste hierarchy, I have list 4 ways to avoid organic waste.

Reduce: Not buying unnecessary food is a basic way to void waste.

Reuse: Shopping with own bags to carry items; Organic waste can be fertilizer for plants.

Recycling: Buy food with recyclable packages; Use recyclable products such as wooden chopsticks if no other option.

Disposal: the last and less favored option.

3
the organic wastes and solutions

Book launch

less waste, less energy cost, new strategy.

References

ABC NEWS 2013, Do Australians waste $8 billion worth of edible food each year?, Sydney, viewed 2 April 2017, < http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-10-08/food-waste-value-australia/4993930&gt;.

Australian Goverment 2015, EAT FOR HEALTH CALCULATORS, Canberra, Viewed 2 April 2017, < https://www.eatforhealth.gov.au/eat-health-calculators&gt;.

Government of South Australia, Four easy ways to recycle your food scraps, Perth, Viewed 3 April 2017, < https://www.charlessturt.sa.gov.au/webdata/resources/files/Food_Composting_Brochure.pdf&gt;.

OZHARVEST 2013, Sydney, viewed 1 April 2017, < http://www.ozharvest.org/what-we-do/environment-facts/?gclid=Cj0KEQjw5YfHBRDzjNnioYq3_swBEiQArj4pdPxlRp0Mggy9kQ-GjkkFmGPIXp_v-51-jZYAZlyYcnwaAnn_8P8HAQ&gt;.

UTS 2013, WASTE MANAGE PLAN 2013-2015, Sydney, Viewed 22 March 2017, <https://www.uts.edu.au/sites/default/files/WASTE_MANAGEMENT_PLAN.140301.pdf&gt;.

Post D: Alternative waste manage system for Zoo Victoria

An alternative plan could be produced for Zoo Victoria to manage organic waste more effectively in order to achieve the goal of “zero waste” by 2019.

They already have effective ways to manage their organic waste such as composting, worm farming, reusable goods and public place recycling, but there is still one alternative they could implement: a fermentation process. Cows, sheep and other ruminants are thought to be responsible for around one-fifth of global methane production, but the precise amount has proved difficult to quantify.

In most zoos, animal waste occupies 50% of the organic waste. Therefore, animal dung should also be properly treated and used to its greatest value. The Tama Zoological Park Manager has indicated that methane produced by the fermentation of animal manure can avoid environmental pollution and be used for the processing of bio fuels (Arita 2003). So the Tokyo Metropolitan Government has recently provided a plan to recycle animal dung, which can also cut disposal costs and save on the use of fossil fuels (Arita 2003). In order to achieve this goal and help Tama Zoological Park become Japan’s first zoo to recycle animal dung as methane energy, they built a methane experimental processing plant in 2005. It is a big project and was expensive.

Instead of this method, I propose the building of small individual underground methane tanks, which can be applied in every zoo. (see image below)

biogas_fixed_dome_illustration.jpg( Biogas)

After this, they should create specific scale Underground methane tanks under the zoo fecal treatment area. Compare the methane underground system with compost made, the built methane can reduce cost and bring the greatest benefit to the zoo.

Every day the staff store the collected organic waste into the underground methane tank through the pipeline in the fecal treatment area. Then after a period of fermentation, the methane that is produced by the underground methane tanks is used to provide the zoo’s entire electricity system and the gas for the restaurant’s cooking. Likewise, Hiroshima University professor Naomichi Nishio, who chaired the Metropolitan Government’s Biomass Project Selection Committee, has pointed out that the technology for producing methane from organic waste has reached a practical stage (Thomas Klasson& Nhuan (John) P 2003). It can help Zoo Victoria cut the cost of disposing dung by recycling the waste.

1._How_to_start_a_biogas_production_business_in_africa_2(Iwuoha 2014)

1._How_to_start_a_biogas_production_business_in_africa_3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Iwuoha 2014)

Elephant and rhinoceros dung was used to investigate the feasibility of generating methane. Based on the amount of dung generated at the Knoxville Zoo, it is estimated that two standard garden grills could be operated using the gas from a digester treating 20 metric tons of herbivore dung per week (Thomas Klasson& Nhuan (John) P 2003).

I believe this system will provide “Zoo Victoria” a better waste management alternative.

 

 REFERENCES:

Arita, E. 2003, ‘Biomass plant to recycle zoo’s animal waste now a dung deal’, The Japan Times, 12 November, viewed 12 on June 2016, < http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2003/11/12/national/biomass-plant-to-recycle-zoos-animal-waste-now-a-dung-deal/#.V107zeZ96L->

‘Biogas’, Ashden post, viewed 12 on June, < https://www.ashden.org/biogas >

GBE Factory 2014, Organic waste recycling and energy recovery in Italy, Youtube, viewed 12 on June 2016, < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qFqGW32Rf6U >

Iwuoha, J. 2014, ‘Biogas How This Common but Underexplored Cooking Fuel is Changing Lives in Africa’, smallstarte business idea, 2 March, viewed 12 on June 2016, < http://www.smallstarter.com/browse-ideas/how-to-start-a-biogas-production-business-in-africa/ >

Thomas Klasson, K., & Nhuan (John) P, Nghiem. 2003, ‘Energy Production from Zoo Animal Wastes’, United States Government, viewed 12 on June 2016, < http://web.ornl.gov/~webworks/cppr/y2001/rpt/116441.pdf>

Zoos Victoria, Zoo Gro, viewed 10 June 2016,< http://www.zoo.org.au/sustainability/zoo-gro>