We the group, Level Three, proposed to a panel of organic food waste specialist on Wednesday 7th June 2017 to make organic food waste transparent at University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) by looking at practices, education and promotion. We began our process by writing our own brief and deciding on the confines we wanted to stay within in the sense of our target market, geographic location, stakeholder and a point in the direction of what we wanted to design. This was all developed from a literature review, blackboard audit, survey, data collection and observations.


As a group you will have the opportunity to design and create a communication tool for students of The University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) and related demographics including staff and businesses in and around the UTS Campus. This communication tool needs to cater to practices, education and promotion by showing transparency surrounding the issues of food waste at UTS.

Research needs to be undertaken to inform and raise awareness regarding the current food waste situation at UTS. Using the UTS Sustainable Development Goals as an initial starting point will assist beginning your process for showing transparency surrounding the issues of food waste at UTS. Primary and secondary methods such as data collection, mind maps, surveys, observation, user testing and literature review need to be undertaken carefully with precision to provide accurate data.

Your presentation of your UTS food waste communication tool is due Wednesday 7th June 2017. You will need to have the food waste tool finalised by Friday 2nd June 2017.

You are to approach the food waste problem at UTS in four separate areas:

  • Food Waste Management
  • Food Waste Communication
  • Food Waste Education
  • Food Waste Systems

The communication tool needs to be presented neatly and in a cohesive manner. Remember you’re designing mainly for students but also for UTS staff and businesses around the UTS campus.

Above is our brief. Initially we struggled to place the right confines on our brief from attempting to come up with the final design solution before going through the design process. The brief hits a couple of key points we decided to align ourselves and the goals we wanted to achieve to the UTS Sustainable Develop Goals. Another key point was sharing and communicating to the UTS community, mainly students about the benefits of organic food waste and what can do to make it transparent.

Survey Analysis

We conducted a survey on organic food waste at UTS aimed at students to see what they knew about the system and whether they wanted to know more. The questions we asked on Survey Monkey, an Internet survey platform made it easier and faster to collect the data.

The results from the survey, identified students don’t know much about the organic food waste system at UTS referring to the 26 out of 39 people in question one. However 37 out of 39 people said they would change their behaviour referring to question four, if they were provided facts and figures. The other insight made was 27 out of 39 people were willing to be part of a broader scheme of organic food waste even with a chance their efforts could be wasted.

Literature Review

We’ve conducted a literature review to further ground our research regarding the current standings of food waste. Looking at this matter from a bigger picture, we’ve divided our research into three sub topics regarding our main focus on food waste (transparency); transparency in everyday practices, education, and promotion. Transparency in everyday practices focuses on the habits and behaviours of humans that shapes the current state of food waste our society is at now. We focused on diving in deeper on how big of an impact of humans can make regarding food waste, and how important it is to know beyond the existing rules of waste distribution, rather concrete their understandings on the current state of food waste. Transparency in education focuses on the precise definition of food waste by being transparent about food waste, as a lack of understanding can result to ignorance. Transparency in promotion is a big part of food waste – our take on this topic was to be completely transparent about the numbers and statistics of the state of food waste right now, as well as goals for the future. This way, we were hoping to stimulate interest from society to take part in improving this matter.

This literature review helped us develop a concrete definition of transparency and food waste itself to move forward with our design ideas. We understand that education was a key point of this topic – as a result, we chose to focus on integrating an educational advertisement through promoting the importance of transparency regarding food waste, and how big of an impact humans can contribute to make a change.


The first design we created was poster based. We believe posters are always a necessary element to any advertising campaign due to their ability to intrigue passerby’s, contain all relevant details and maintain a prominence across the campus. Containing a different type of food on each, the vector is depicted at a low transparency to reinforce our transparent theme.

The second design constructed was a design that we decided on when walking the sidewalks of the university. “Food Prints” were formed as a concept that can be applied to the ground of all walking spaces on campus. Naturally looking down when walking, students, staff and visitors can walk on our food prints and at a glance, be reminded of the message we are attempting to convey to to UTS as a whole.


Our transparency communication tool has been developed from the results of the literature review, black board audit, organic food waste data collection, online survey and visual analysis. This has given us the evidence to design an appropriate answer to organic food waste not going to landfill but back into our gardens by means of compost from the machines in building 8 and 10.




Characterised by their nature, components and quality, waste generation is an intimate part of human existence. In determining the most appropriate management plan to adopt, the cultural, economic, social and financial status can be connected to the dwellers of the space at hand both locally and around the world.

The ‘Management Practices in Higher Learning Nigeria’ paper captures the current institutional solid waste management in a Nigerian institution. A waste generation rate, pattern and characterisation was discovered through the application of both interviews and personal field observations. Results revealed that between 0.3 and 0.4 kilograms was generated daily by the students of the higher education across their various halls of residence. With halls holding up to 900 students, generated waste was gathered through waste collection bags and strategically positioned mobile bins. The waste collected on the premises were later separated into plastics, bottles, nylon and organic materials. Originally organic waste, the non-bidegradables were then sold at local markets, accumulating an estimated sum of $2900 USD every day. Continuing at this rate, a total of $1,045,450 USD is a potential yearly wealth from waste gain. Subsequently, there would be phenomenal rise in wealth if all kitchen, cafeteria and farming organic waste was utilized for bioenergy and fertiliser.

Image result for solid waste management in Kuala Lumpur

Due to rapid economic development and population growth along with a lack of infrastructure and expertise, management of municipal solid waste is one of Malaysia’s most critical environmental issues. Evidence from Kuala Lumpur evaluates the generation, characteristics and management of solid waste based on published information.Domestic waste remaining the primary source, per capita generation rate is close to 0.5–0.8 kilograms a day. While solid waste is currently managed by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, a new institutional and legislation framework has been structured aimed at establishing a holistic, integrated and cost-effective management system. With the plan emphasising environmental protection and public health, the ‘Practices and Challenges’ article states that solid waste management has been highly prioritised to source reduction, intermediate treatment and final disposal.

Furthering my review of systematic waste reduction in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, this study employed a contingent valuation method that estimated locals willingness to pay for the improvement of household waste collection systems. Aimed at evaluating how changes in recycling and waste separation is made mandatory, the method involved asking individuals about their opinions of additional waste collection service charges. Implemented to cover the costs of a new waste management project, the plan consisted of recycling and waste separation deemed mandatory (version A) and not mandatory (version B). When asked to separate the waste, locals declined version A despite the fact that all facilities would be provided. As concluded within the study, results indicate that residents of Kuala Lumpur were not conscious of recycling and waste separation benefits. Continuative efforts must be taken in order to raise environmental awareness across households through education and an increase in the publicity of waste separation, reducing and recycling.



Coker, A., Achi, C., Sridhar, M. and Donnett, C. (2016). Solid Waste Management Practices at a Private Institution of Higher Learning in Nigeria. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 35, pp.28-39.

Manaf, L., Samah, M. and Zukki, N. (2009). Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: Practices and challenges. Waste Management, 29(11), pp.2902-2906.

Afroz, R. and Masud, M. (2011). Using a contingent valuation approach for improved solid waste management facility: Evidence from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Waste Management, 31(4), pp.800-808. (2017). Are we ready for new solid waste management practices? | The Malaysian Times. [online] Available at: [Accessed 16 Jun. 2017].

Post B


Group Name:  Level Threes

Members: Sabrina, Hollie, Georgina, Stuart, Johnny

What are our ‘ground rules’?

  • Consistency
  • turning up on time
  • communicating well through facebook, contributing on assignments, giving feedback and opinions
  • Being vocal and voicing your opinions
  • Going through assignments together before turning it in
  • Complete assignments at / at least two days before due date

What will we do if a group member’s work doesn’t meet our standards?

Speak up assertively – going about it in a respectful way (guidance, giving advice, offer help).

What are our goals? What are we trying to accomplish?

To produce quality work in a cohesive environment.

How are we going to make decisions?

Consulting every member of the group – everyone gets to voice out their opinions and give feedback.

What skills, strengths and weaknesses do we have within our group?

  • Working well together along with good communication
  • Need to be more attentive
  • Keeping on top of dates
  • Staying on par and informing each other on new information / readings, etc

We agree with this charter and will try our best to uphold it.


As a team, we hired a private study space and began the process of designing our caddy by folding shapes with newspaper. Brainstorming ideas, we researched previous designs to see what was already out there. Coming up with multiple options, we were now aware of how many pages were necessary for thickness. A particular fold was deemed our most successful as we decided on a caddy design that utilizes a total of four pages.

The design was proven a success after each of our individual tests and experiments. In order to make our design readily available to the multi-cultural demographic of Australia, we’ve decided to exclude audio and subtitles to ease understanding. Allowing a user to apply this design in their own homes, our step-by-step graphics clearly indicates the caddy liner folding process.

We took photographs of distinct steps while filming our video. Applying these photographs to an instructional poster, we decided that photographs were the most clear and cater to a wider range of audiences. We also applied a street poster that could potentially influence the public to participate in utilizing this design in their own home, ultimately educating the community on organic waste.

Attempting to make our design as simple and as practical as possible, we are certain our caddy liner meets the needs of feasibility, sustainability and environmentally friendliness. Our group ultimately want to educate the community on organic waste throughout successful applications of visual communication sources.

Interdisciplinary design looks at many disciplines and categories at the same time. This approach can contribute to active organic waste solutions by looking at a project beyond its category and using intersections. Design can succeed in this field through communicating with the wider communities emotions and reasoning: “We’re experts at looking to the future.”

Creatives read about everything and are continually curious. In forming a solution to a problem, a designer becomes an artist. Utilizing an interdisciplinary approach, they train themselves to question all truths. By looking beyond the obvious, you have the capability to uncover a powerful solution.

Designers are critical in the management of organic waste through their combination of creative, technical and political solutions. A variety of disciplinaries maintain the ability to improve the design, construction and operation of organic waste. Identifying waste management solutions and programs, designers can education and sensitize correct waste disposal through a variety of their own strengths and focuses.

Design thinking is an overall mind-set that maintains specific methods that ultimately make significant contributions to the strengthening of systems. Centrally creating innovations to solve problems, design improves user orientation. Applying practise-driven methods, a designers contribution is vital through their ability to oppose established research methods. Necessary in providing varied solutions, their perspective ensures a wider exploration. This visualization and conflict with the norm assists in both the changing and inventing of new systems by means of methods and tools that are specific to interdisciplinary fields.


Petrovic, K. (2017). The Interdisciplinary Design Approach – HOW Design. [online] HOW Design. Available at: [Accessed 10 May 2017]. (2017). Design area 7 – Waste Management | EWB Challenge. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 May 2017].

Brenner, W. and Uebernickel, F. (2016). Design Thinking for Innovation. 1st ed. New York: Springer.

Blog Post A: Home and Catering Audit

Attempting to do my part for the planet, this post explores my first and very own home waste audit. Covering the duration of a 24 hour period, this experiment provided me with explicit details in how much waste my household generates and how far a kitchen compost bin assists in reducing this.

Using my given compost bin for the first time on Sunday, I was forced to bin a quarter of a punnet of strawberries that I had discovered were already mouldy. Adding to this were remaining strawberry tops that my family had eaten with pancakes. Further thrown on top were crushed egg shells used to make the pancakes. My tea bag was later discarded along with excess coffee grounds left behind by my parents. Binned in our non-recycables were dairy products such as cream and butter scraps as well as bread crusts and various packaging.

As a family, we finished off a tofu stir fry from the night before for lunch today, later adding half a cup of rice along with leftover corn and tofu. My brother ordered a pizza for himself, however he refuses to eat the crusts. With a handful of crusts remaining in his pizza box, l later discarded them to our non-recyclables, along with plastic take-away containers and the greasy pizza box.

For afternoon tea I snacked on an apple and added the core to the compost bin. My mum also ate a banana and I encouraged her to also throw the skin away for compost. Both my brother and dad had salad sandwiches that besides some excess grated cheese, were for the most-part finished. Remaining cheese waste was thrown into our regular bin.

Our BBQ dinner contained plenty of excess that was easily compostable. Corn cobs and salad as well as carrot and potato peels were among the waste left behind. Thrown into our non-recycable bin was meat waste including bones, fat, gristle, skin and other various scraps. Similar to breakfast, we also discarded packaging from dinner.

home audits

Attending a catered canapé event as part of “Wealth from Waste,” I closely analysed both the inputs and outputs of the organised experience. I narrowed the catering down to four main themes: the space, equipment/staff, guests and food preparations.

The inputs involved in the space included organising the venue hire as well as providing fridges, ovens, a bar and work surfaces. The outputs of this contain the removal of bench and bar space clutter, cleaning the fridges and ovens along with ensuring the venue is returned to its original state.

Equipment and staff stands as an important element to this event. Organisers must ensure they have sufficient service, covering bartenders, waiters and chefs. Decorations, serving dishes, plates and glassware are among the equipment that was necessary for hire. Important outputs are also involved in equipment and staff hire. Services must be paid for, equipment is cleaned and packed away and hired cleaners are responsible for the removal of food waste and the venues cleanliness.

Guests’ input into the event across invitation, promotion and guest lists. Determining specific allergies that must be brought to attention, their output involves the thanking of guests along with gaining their feedback of the event in order to improve and make changes for future experiences.

Food preparation is an essential and central element to both the input and output process of any catered event. Canapés included vegan gardens and rice paper roll finger food. The leftovers of both options were able to be composted at the conclusion of the event. Refrigeration of remaining bottles as well as the washing away of any remaining drink left in glasses would also be required. The input of food towards the event includes its preparation in advance along with a time plan and food safety knowledge. Once organising a set menu, caterers must work out accurate numbers while catering for less than expected to avoid excess waste.

canape audit


Clean Up Event Guide. (2017). 1st ed. [ebook] Sydney: Clean Up the World Pty Limited. Available at: [Accessed 5 Apr. 2017].

Conserve Energy Future. (2017). How To Conduct A Household Waste Audit – Conserve Energy Future. [online] Available at: [Accessed 5 Apr. 2017].

Cortesia Sanctuary, P. (2017). How to Compost Food Scraps. [online] Available at: [Accessed 5 Apr. 2017].