Final Presentation: Know Waste

Natalie, Kane, Adrian, Nancy, William.

We live in a society that is 100% based on aesthetics. We have been raised and nurtured to think this way. We are biologically set to make emotional decisions at first glance & To seek the instant gratification of visual aesthetic over function.

Our group decided to focus on us as the stakeholders in the system. the students. Offering the main question…..How to we marinate some foresight into and get such an apathetic bunch that bases most of their daily decisions on aesthetics to have some sort of agency.

We have come up with an educational campaign that uses current systems like TV screens and PC wallpaper and created a website that would allow for further information about the system and strategy, as well as videos and images to be readily available. We chose a fresh green to be our core colour as it looks modern and stands out as well as tying in with the eco theme. It is important to start educating and notifying students of the upcoming changes well in advance as it creates awareness makes students prepared for the rest of the rollout. The TV’s are an under-utilised medium for communication as they can quickly, cheaply and passively provide information to a screen-obsessed generation.

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We’ve obviously used the bins at UTS already, we know what they look like, we know where they are and we know what we do with them but consider this; do we know what the system is? Currently we understand one system. Put your waste in the bin. That’s about as far as it goes. So we decided to orchestrate some basic research. We went for a walk around the UTS campus concentrating on student areas and cafes. Building 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11 and the underground food halls.

What we found was 16 different types of bins. 2 unrelated systems. None of them organic. Interestingly, there were more battery recycling bins than regular recycling bins.

With this data we put together a potential timetable of a student day (which was a slight modification of my own timetable) to see how many types of bins students are coming in contact with throughout their day. As you can imagine, the results are less than impressive.

With this information we find that although a couple of waste management systems are observable, they are inconsistent and counterproductive in their communication to students. So we designed a system to address the apathetic audience and the incohesive waste disposal system of UTS.

Another change of implementation we believe could be a positive movement would be in agreement with all food outlets and UTS that they implement only biodegradable disposable packaging.

This includes everything from cutlery to coffee cups.

Introducing this packaging policy would reduce the amount of waste considerably, reducing costs for both the university and the business owners.

Companies such as BioPak have every product ready for the institute to put into place and into our hands when we purchase lunch each day. These products enable the diversion of waste from landfill by being either recyclable or compostable.

This closed loop system we present would be the operating rhythm at UTS with our processes in place. It includes a regular auditing and review process to proof the system and improve when necessary.

This process allows UTS to take responsibility of our waste from the beginning right through to the end product.

This loop is in similar format which we observed yesterday at Eastern Creek Waste Management Facility in which the e waste is collected and brands such as Panasonic picks up their original product, take it apart at their processing centre and use the precious metals in new product. This closes the loop between product, waste and responsibility.

– Educational campaigns are the most common way to try and induce ecologically responsible behaviour.

– Most campaigns assume that with education comes both attitude and behaviour change. This assumption is flawed as there are many reasons why attitudes and behaviour don’t sync.

– The campaigns have been proven more affective  when they aim to simplify and discount the preferred action and focus on the people who don’t rather than the people who do.

– Interventions focusing on providing information, primarily affect the RATIONALITY sphere.

– This sphere emphasizes the cognitive dimension of human behaviour and pro-environmental attitudes, “knowing” how to behave and the consequences.

– The supposed tendency of internal consistency between attitudes, thoughts and behaviour is related to rationality.

-One of the most important aspects of persuasive campaigns is, in addition to rationality, the manipulation of emotions to form messages.

-In the EMOTION sphere:



GUILT are some of the most common emotions used in persuasive campaigns.

– The FUNCTIONALITY sphere applies to resources, minimizing effort and costs and perceived difficulty.

-The SOCIAL INFLUENCE sphere, refers to the desire to be socially accepted as well as to the desire to do the right thing.

Full Image presentation Prezi avaliable below:


D: The shape of things to come

After my investigation on the processes in place and the high levels of waste within NSW hospitals, I examined current advanced technologies they have implemented. Some of the standard practices they are undertaking daily, yet have not been updated by these new technologies.

I believe a machinery sorting process within the bins of the hospitals could identify organic waste opportunities for innovative recycling, involving products such as grains, seeds and cores.

One of the first processes that could enjoy the benefits of future organic waste recycling is 3D printing. The way of the future in medicine is 3D printing body parts; which was first introduced in Australia in 2011 when Dr Marc Coughlan placed a 3D printed implant between a woman’s vertebrae to alleviate her of excruciating pain that no other process could resolve without involving a 95% chance of severing her spine.

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(Guilliantt, Richard, 2016)


The shredded waste of organic qualities such as seeds could be mixed with a form of sand that is used in 3D print moulding. Not only would this save on the high cost of this powder, it extends the lifecycle of the original waste and would introduce a denser quality to the powder, that in turn requires less liquid setting to form the limbs or parts.

There are even future opportunities for more of the waste, such as the skin of a mandarin, to be melted or scratched to a grain – as current 3D printing uses products such as textiles and resins as well as sand and powder. The results are endless, creating a complete lifecycle: from a piece of organic waste consumed by a human that could help create a custom-designed prosthetic finger that they use.

The system to create these opportunities from the organic waste would simply need to condense and grate the food into a granular, sand-type product. In the case of fruit skins, this is not too much work due to its tough quality already. The dissected food product would then be combined with either the powder or sand already on the market for 3D printing. Besides giving back to the environment and reducing general waste, the hospital would also reduce the amount of 3D printing material required to purchase. In addition, the organic food waste product would add bulk to the sand and allow it to stretch further, allowing more 3D products to be created with it.

The other process that could be used within NSW hospitals with organic waste collected would involve categorising the organic waste through a sorting bin. With this process, it could remove the key vitamins and essential oils in the food thrown away, such as banana skin, and use it to contribute to products such as saline solution used to re-hydrate patients. At the very least, these invaluable resources within organic waste can be transformed into capsule supplements, similar to ones already on the market today. For example, a banana has Vitamin A, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C and Folate (folic acid). The benefits of the vitamins in the skin could be used to further improve the health of the original consumer (patients), as opposed to simply decomposing in general waste.

Guilliatt, Richard, 2016, The shape of things to come, News website, The Australian, Surry Hills, Accessed 11th June 2016, <>

Sculpteo, 2016, 3D Printers and 3D Printing: Technologies, Processes and Techniques, Villejuif, France, Accessed 11th June 2016, <>

C:The reduction and consumption of waste, comparing the movements of change within the Sydney Local Health District and the Sutherland Shire Council.

Waste is an unavoidable by-product of many human activities. Some waste is benign; some is hazardous to people or the environment. Regardless, the generation and disposal of waste should be managed proactively. Effective management seeks to reduce waste and manage its disposal in an environmentally friendly and cost-effective way. Waste, once created, should be separated into distinct ‘streams’, so that similar wastes can be handled and disposed of, having to regard to the environment, health, safety and cost.

In 2013, the Sydney Local Health District under the power of the NSW State Government for Health released the Sustainability Plan, with a main aim to reduce carbon gases and their impact on the environment. It referenced many ways to reduce waste, including organic elements of food, construction materials, grass and tree waste, paper and landfill. This process aims to reach their goals over a five year period through to 2018 and I have mirrored their research with the NSW Audit Office report into managing food waste.

Before the 1990’s, most hospital garbage was regarded as ‘contaminated’ and incinerated on hospital grounds. Little emphasis was given to the separation of waste into distinct streams to facilitate its disposal. Over the last decade, hospitals have been required to conform to tighter environmental regulation.

I discovered that Royal Prince Alfred Hospital Sydney is one of the largest creators of waste in NSW hospitals, yet is the least proactive in their initiative to change. However, one of the greatest successes implemented across all hospitals is the use of recyclable plastic in the manufacture of Baxter bottles, which are used in vast quantities for saline. In addition, the use of re-usable containers for sharps is a major innovation.

Concord Hospital recycles 3.3 tons of paper and cardboard per week. On the other hand, one of the greatest constraints for organic food waste is the transition to ‘cook-chill’ meals, which constrains the opportunity to reduce food waste. Well considered sourcing and purchasing decisions that result in the provision of fresh, locally grown produce will save energy in production and transportation, and also result in less waste.

The environmental services waste team of Concord Repatriation General Hospital conducted a food waste audit. It identified that over 25% of total CRGH waste was generated from Food Services, however that 42% of this food service waste was compostable. The food wasted in our hospitals ends up in landfill, producing methane, a powerful greenhouse gas.

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(Sutherland Shire Council, 2011)

In comparison, at a local government level, waste is an important area to focus on to reduce cost and sustain a beautiful environment for residents to live in. The natural environment of the Sutherland Shire is treasured by residents and visitors alike. It adds to the beauty of the area and for many people, is the key factor which makes living here so enjoyable. Mitigating the waste effects of our activities in each domain of Sutherland Shire life is critical to ensuring its ongoing viability and protection. In the local Council’s community satisfaction survey, waste services – garbage, recycling and green waste collection – are ranked as three of the five most important issues for residents.

Below is a snapshot of the type and range of Sutherland Shire Council services and facilities that the community uses every day:

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(Sutherland Shire Council, 2013)

During 2006/07 a total of 98,314 tonnes of domestic waste was produced, totalling 457kg per resident per year. The waste hierarchy is the underlying principle used for Sutherland Shire Council’s waste services. The existing waste contracts, with Pioneer Waste Management and Visy Recycling, include clauses that focus on delivering waste avoidance, reduction and recycling as a priority.

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One of the greatest links between the Sutherland Shire Council and its local residents is the commitment to education, which in turn betters the environment and results in beneficial audits. Council offers residents of the Shire a number of free Waste Wise Living workshops to help you adapt environmentally friendly practices in your home. Participants also receive a free Compost Bin or Worm Farm during the workshops. The accessibility online of clear information as to where our waste goes after it leaves our homes is concise, and allows residents a peace of mind that their organic waste is being replenished back into the environment positively.

Anderson Teresa, Phillips Ron, 2013, Sustainability Plan, Sydney Local Health District, Sydney, Accessed 10th June 2016, <>

Metropolitan waste and resource recovery group, 2016, Organics recycling at home, Victoria State Government, Melbourne, Accessed 12th June, <>

NSW EPA, 2015, Organic Waste, Sydney South, Viewed 7th June 2016, <>

Sendt R, 2002, Managing Hospital Waste, Auditor-General’s Report, Department of Health Audit Office, Sydney, Accessed 10th June 2016, <>

Sutherland Shire Council, 2013, Our Shire Our Future Resourcing Strategy 2013/14 – 2022/23, Sutherland, Accessed 11th June 2016, <>

Sutherland Shire Council, 2011, Our guide for Shaping the Shire to 2030, Sutherland Shire’s Community Strategic Plan, Sutherland, Accessed 11th June 2016, <>

Sutherland Shire Council, 2008, Local Waste Management Plan – Sutherland Shire Council, Sutherland, Accessed 12th June 2016, <>

Sutherland Shire Council, 2015, Waste Wise Workshops, Sutherland, Accessed 12th June 2016, <>

Sutherland Shire Council, 2015, Where does my Waste go?, Sutherland, Accessed 12th June 2016, <>

B: The human evaluation – data collection

During my own design process, the data collection I consume is mostly all user based: how a garment works and fits, and how the wearer feels. However, to arrive at the point of design, I also undertake research, look back at the trends of past eras, and examine common reoccurring looks, colours, shapes and styles.

From the research that I undertake, I then draw key overlapping qualities that are due to be reinvented and can work off this to sketch my own innovative designs repeatedly. This is the way fashion design works most of the time, although it can also be a spontaneous moment of brilliant creativity – if one is lucky.

During my research of data collection methods, I found interaction prototyping and evaluation. I connected with this process of continually testing a ‘rough’ prototype in a designs basic concept as it was an interdisciplinary way of thinking about toiling in fashion design. To make a toile is to sew a basic shape or practice run of our final garment, however it is often made of a cheaper fabric (often calico canvas) or something of a similar weight to our final garment fabric. This allows us to place the garment on a fit model and discover how the human moves, wears and fits our design. Working on a flat pattern compared to seeing it on a body makes a huge difference; it is a 3D body in which evaluation is key – not only for the fit of a garment but also for how the design works aesthetically with the shape of either a female or male. “Interaction prototypes can help you to generate scenarios of product-user interactions. These scenarios can inform the design brief and requirements by providing insight into use situations, sequences of use and the geometrical and material qualities that influence a user’s experiences.” (Annemiek van Boeijen, Jaap Daalhuizen, Jelle Zijlstra, Roos van der Schoor, 2014)

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Quick cardboard model gives the designer feedback on how the design works and how users react and interact. (Roos Van der Schoor,2014.)

Below are images of the toiling stages I have undergone for my recent menswear collection. I discovered that pants were too long, the sleeve didn’t fit right through the shoulder, the shirt flared and the model was restricted in his neck. The collection of user based data was endless and ensured that my final design was perfectly successful on the body. The process of data collection for organic waste design could be tested in a similar way: does the apple core fit through the bin’s processing tube to eliminate seeds from the core? Can the user open the bin with one hand if waste is in the other?

Research in a widespread concept is essential and this is not a new finding, however the concept of making our own drawings from researching trends of the past is a way of collecting data in our own unique way. This can allow the research to be more specific in areas we need for a basic design in mind.

For example, to analyse the past growth or decline of waste in a particular area such as Parramatta, we can look at key events and changes during that time and consequently make conclusions as to why this has happened. Currently, we can understand that due to a rise in the population and new development, there is a rise in waste because of human interaction. Whereas if the suburb is coastal, we may be able to conclude that decay has become more prevalent because of rising sea levels and sand dumping.

Ultimo, being one of the hubs of the city, has had similar reoccurring waste issues that unfortunately have not yet been solved. Therefore, by analysing the past, we can understand what has not worked, why that is, and the requirements the area needs to create a successful design in its management of waste in the future.

Both of these ways of collecting data allow research and user based data to contribute to a more successful final design. They are unique in perspective, coming from a fashion design background, however they focus on the process and exploration just as much as they do the end product.

Annemiek van Boeijen, Jaap Daalhuizen, Jelle Zijlstra, Roos van der Schoor, 2014, Delft Design Guide: Design Strategies and Methods, Edition 2, illustrated, revised, BIS Publishers, Amsterdam.

A: Eggcycle

cTo analyse my food waste audit was not only to recognise how much organic waste I was creating, but also to ask the question: What was organic? One of the most concise yet still accurate definitions was the following; “Organic waste…is organic material such as food, garden and lawn clippings. It can also include animal and plant based material and degradable carbon such as paper, cardboard and timber.” (Environment Victoria, 2015, Para.1)

FullSizeRenderOne of the most viable sources of organic waste in my own audit, that also seems a common thread through the blog generally, is eggs; the shell in particular. Everyone is eating eggs as a great source of inexpensive, high quality protein. However, as I analysed the life cycle of how an egg gets to our table I wanted to extend the lifecycle of it rather than ending it in our mouths. In some recipes, the egg white or egg yolk may be excluded; this is such an exciting use of organic (possible) waste as the possibilities are endless of what to do with it next, as opposed to putting it in our household bin!

“An egg shell is made of calcium carbonate, which is also the main ingredient in some antacids. Each medium sized egg shell has about 750-800 mgs of calcium.” (One good thing, 2013, Para.4)Screen Shot 2016-06-14 at 8.35.51 AM

To throw out this use of calcium would be such a waste of resources. Uses for the egg shells could include; a nourishing face mask, a powerful cleaner, mini pot plant for seedlings, cat deterrent and your very own powdered calcium supplement! It can be added to your morning juice for a slight boost in your step each day.

One of the most useful and intriguing ways of using an egg shell I found was to treat skin irritations.  By mixing an eggshell and apple cider vinegar, you can create a healing treatment for itchy skin or minor irritations. Again, we have used our food waste back into our bodies in a positive way, at the same time eliminating our daily waste.

One alternative use of egg yolks or egg whites would be in further recipes such as meringue or dough. However, I thought into my practice again and also our design process coming up and in a small scale, how we could make even better use of this versatile product. Egg is a great product of starch that can be mixed into textiles to add a strength and hard quality to a fibre. A lot of the time, to add this quality to a fabric, we add similar products by heat transfer such as a fusing. Environmentally and financially, this is a poor decision. Instead, we could create a paste from egg whites or yolks that could dry into the fabric and wash fast to create an innovative product. The same system could be used to many construction fibres such as paper, plastic or wood grain to stick together. We are not only creating an innovative material to design with; we are also making our organic waste valuable again.

Environment Victoria, 2015, Organic waste, Carlton Victoria, Accessed 8th June 2016, <>

Incredible Egg, 2016, Where eggs come from, American Egg Board, Illinois, US, Accessed 12th June 2016, <>

Metropolitan waste and resource recovery group, 2016, Organics recycling at home, Victoria State Government, Melbourne, Accessed 12th June, <>

NSW EPA, 2015, Organic Waste, Sydney South, Viewed 7th June 2016, <>

NSW EPA, 2015, Managing waste at home, Sydney South, Viewed 7th June 2016, <>

Nystul, Jill, 2013, 15 Surprising uses for eggshells, Blog, One Good Thing, California, Date Accessed 12th June 2016, <>

Sutherland Shire Council, 2015, Where does my Waste go?, Sutherland, Accessed 12th June 2016, <>

The Waste Wise Schools Program, 2012, Organic Waste, Department of Environment and Conservation, Bentley DC, WA, Accessed 9th June 2016, <>

William & Murphy , 2001, Rubbish – The Archaeology of Garbage, The University of Arizona Press.